Der HSV ist der Dino der Bundesliga. Kein anderer Verein war ununterbrochen. Aufgeführt sind alle Vereine, die jemals in der Fußball-Bundesliga oder in der 2. Fußball-Bundesliga gespielt haben. Zur besseren Übersicht ist die Liste in. Die Bundesliga ist die höchste Spielklasse im deutschen Fußball. Sie wurde nach dem .. FC Kaiserslautern (jeweils 33 Spielzeiten) die drei Gründungsmitglieder mit der nächstlängsten ununterbrochenen Zugehörigkeit erstmals abgestiegen.
The approach speeds of the aircraft in the above mentioned example are knots for the Viscount and knots for the DC 8 at maximum landingwerght In this example we only cons;dered reducing the DC 8.
Another possibility would have been I. It is obvious that pilots are in favour of this positive speed control as long as it prevents them from being delayed over holding points.
Therefore this tool is not only useful for controllers but it will on the other hand save money on the part of airline operators. It prevents the pilot from "dead" flying at low altitudes and will thereby avoid excessive fuel consumption for jet aircraft.
It is not possible of course to give upper and lower limitations for non reducing respectively reducing as these limitations depend on local circumstances terrain etc.
The extent to which controllers can use this technique should be laid down in local instructions after thorough consult with airline operators.
Generally, pilots may be asked to fly at least at maximum flap extension speed until the aircraft is approximately 10 nautical miles from.
In view of the ground-equipment program and as acceptable results can only be obtained with SSR if the necessary airborne equipment is installed, the Netherlands CAD plans to implement the following program on the mandatory carriage of SSR-transponders on board of aircraft.
This problem is published below for the guidance and information of operators. Taking into account Ree. Reducing is possible to this "flap extension speed" and also further down to "flap up manoeuvring speed" at all distances.
As soon as the aircraft is about 15 nautical miles out, it may be further reduced to "circuit manoeuvring speed".
A request to reduce to "recommended approach speed" is only acceptable, if the aircraft is well established on the. Spacing Chart to obtain 3 min.
Numbers show separation required in nautical miles when No. If ground and airborne equipment becomes available in the period up to which will make the use of 4 codes A, B, C and D pulses on modes A, B, C and D possible, a further policy announcement will be made.
It is anticipated that this type of equipment will become mandatory by Opeircitoon and Applications of the Hazeltine Alpha-Numeric Generator An new alpha-numeric generator ANG equipment recently developed by the Hazeltine Corporation provides a long-awaited improvement in air traffic control - the positive association of aircraft identity and altitude information with the aircraft targets shown on radar displays.
The number of channels refers to the number of independent radar displays which the ANG can feed simultaneously. This type of display is installed in many Federal Aviation Agency air traffic control facilities.
The heart of the ANG is the data converter, which converts digital data to television alpha-numeric video. The data converter is analogous to the scan converter which translates the radar picture into television raster form, for bright display.
Converting digital computer data into television raster form, the ANG operates in parallel with the scan converter, as shown in Figure 1.
The outputs of the scan converter and the data converter are combined in a video mixer, to provide a composite television display of radar and alphanumeric data.
The RBDE-5 system uses a lrne television raster which has active lines. Each of these lines is made up of separate picture elements.
Thus the useable raster contains X, or approximately OOO discrete picture elements. By activating appropriate combinations of the memory elements, any alpha-numeric character or other visual symbol may be generated.
This is the smallest matrix which will produce all numerals and all letters of the Roman alphabet, in easily-readible form.
Larger matrices could be designed if necessary to accomodate larger or more complex symbology. Figure 6 shows its main components.
The operation of these components is described below. Controls Each display chan nel is equipped w ith o set of controls to enable the controller to se lect a nd position the data on his display, to enter new o r modified data into the computer, to coordinate target hondoff i nformation, and to transfer target juri sdiction to an o ther channel.
These contro l modules are shown in Figure 7 to l l. All modules ore mounted in conven ient location s in the display console. Subsequently, th e activation o f on entry button transfers the data to the core memory, as a service command.
An inherent characteristic of a ll picto rial ai r traffic co ntrol d isp la ys is that th e d isplay surface con prese nt on ly o two -di mensiona l picture of o situation w hich is taking place in thre e dimens ions.
Th is o fte n causes the fo rgets to overlap. In such co ses the re is a dec ided tendency for the a ssociated target la be ls to ove rlap too. This characte rist ic con be corrected, by providin g the contro ll er with the ab ility to shift any target la be l to on e o f eight d iffe re nt direc tio ns from its a ssoc iated ta rget.
In add ition, t he co ntrolle r con change the length of the leader lines, to change the d istance between the target labels a nd thei r a ssoc iated targets.
To ovo id the da nger of o verw he lming t he controlle r with too mu ch informat ion, con tro ls o re provided which enable h im to filte r th e a lp ha-nume ric d a ta p resente d o n his d isplay, to suppress t he informatio n w hich is not of immed iate inte rest, and thus increase the visibility of the stra teg ic informa tion w hich is pertine nt to th e si tua tion a t hand.
Th e suppressed informat ion co n b e called up instantly w he n need ed. Th ese bits ore transm itted in pa ra llel, one word a t a time.
The ANG con ha ndle inputs and outputs a t the rote of w ords p e r secon d. The co mputer-ge ne rated target da ta inc ludes a ircraft iden tifi cation, altitud e, b e a con code, and posi tion coo rdi na tes, for e a ch ta rg et.
From 5 to 15 digital wo rds ore necessary to defin e a ll the da ta for a singl e ta rget. Whe never a change in the display d a ta occu rs, th e compu ter furnishes the ANG w ith a co mpl e te new set of target d a ta.
The ta rge t data is rece ived by a buffe r re g is te r and is transferred im media te ly to the co re memo ry for storag e.
Service co m ma nds g e ne ra ted by the ope rato r controls o re transmitted fr om the core memory through on output interface to the compute r.
Core Memory O ne portion of the core mem o ry sto res t he target data received fro m the computer, a nd a lso accumul ates the service comman ds receive d fro m th e var ious o p e ra to r controls.
This portion of the core me mo ry con sto re all th e target a nd co ntrol data for as many a s a ircraft ta rgets. Th e core storag e is shore d used sequ e ntia ll y by a l I display channe ls.
This design concept minimizes th e syste m cost per chan nel. The magnetic core memory hos the extreme ly high d a ta rote cap ability w h ich is necessary for this ty pe of o peration.
A ll target data in the core storage is sca nn ed se quen tia lly to select the data to be displayed by each cha nne l.
It receives the targe t do te bi ts fro m the core me mory. These bits defin e the channel a dd ress leade r, bar, a nd character codes. After the required vectors ore p roce ssed, the leader line and any required bars o re gene rated in a sim ila r ma nner.
Th e a lphanume ric characters a re t he n g enerated. Each cha racter is tra nslated from a six-bit cha ra cte r code word rece ived fro m the core memory, into th e ind ividual seque nce of video-coded bits w hich d e fi ne t he character.
As each character is loade d, the me mory contro l adva nces to the sta rting address of the next cha racter. A space of two dots laterally or three te lev is ion li nes ve rtically, se para tes adjace nt characte rs in the targe t fo rm at.
This me mory un it p rovides 0 separate co re fo r e a ch o f the mo re than individua l dot positions of t he tele vision ras te r.
The core is the n ready to co ll ect th e in fo rmation for the next d is p la y channe l. The d rum rotates o t p recisely l rpm, w hich cor resp o nds to the 30 cycles-per-second fr a me ra te of the television sys te m.
The magnetic drum provides a very economical method of storing and reading out regeneratively the nearly 5 OOO OOO bits of information which are required to operate the SPAN system at full capacity.
The drum has not only inherent compatibility with the scan rates used in television systems, but its memory is indestructable except by deliberate erasure.
This provides a safety factor in that the last data will continue to be available on the display even though a failure occurs in the computer or its associated circuitry.
The brightness or intensity of the alpha-numeric data, and the radar data, is separately controllable on the display. An outstanding advantage of the Hazeltine display concept is that whenever the alpha-numeric information is updated or moved on the display, the old information disappears instantly without leaving a smear on the radar indicator.
Video Generator The video generator accepts the drum information, and provides amplification and pulse-shaping functions to prepare its output for the video mixer.
Video Mixer A separate video mixer is provided for each display channel. Each video mixer accepts and integrates the outputs of the scan converter and the video generator of the.
Traffic-count is made; two more hours to go and the night shift will be over. So much for the state of affairs on the ground. Meanwhile, about 10 kilometres above, on the flight deck of Speedliner , the crew are also looking forward to the end of a strenuous tour of duty.
The reply comes immediate and unexpected "Mountain Control from Speedliner , go ahead". Undoubtedly they want to give us an en-route descent.
But - ", Mountain Control, test out". Who are you please? Whatt is my name. My name is John Watt. The same principles can be used in other types of systems to translate computer-derived data.
The data converter concept used in the Hazeltine ANG is easily adaptable to color television displays. Using this concept, Hazeltine has successfully developed and demonstrated various color TV displays of alpha-numeric and pictorial information, over the past two years.
Will you tell me your name? My name is Knott. Would you like another call? He convinced me he had never made a radar approach before and that he knew nothing about the procedures used.
After a brief explanation of what was to take place, I identified the target and the maiden approach got under way. As I remember it, it was about at this point.
The major components in an SSR system are shown in Fig. The main choice to be made by Administrations purchasing SSR ground equipment which will meet ICAO recommendations lies between two types of equipment:.
What is the maximum. Thus, a degree of standardisation has been achieved for the airborne element of the SSR system.
However, in planning ground SSR installations, it is not possible to have a "standard" system, since operational requirements, availability of sites, technical and financial considerations can all effect the configuration of the equipment.
How many displa I. When the engineer has 0 clea. Some of the dec1s1ons to be made ore given below. Operational Requirements The golden rule to observe before choosing an SSR system is to decide on the exact operationo I facilities required, both initially and for the future.
The sort of questions which must be answered are:. By mounting the SSR antenna directly on the primary array, Azimuth coincidence of both radars is assured, and separate turning gear is not required, but 1 or 2 additional channels in the rotating joint are necessary and may not be available in the primary.
Again, certain primary radar scanners may not have sufficient mechanical strength to carry the additional weight and windage. With an off-mounted SSR aerial, operational flexibility is enhanced, since the SSR can be used independently, or in conjunction with a second primary in the event of breakdown of the main primary radar.
The off-mounted SSR aerial should be sited as close to the primary head as possible, since azimuth errors between primary and secondary returns become greater as the distance between the two radar heads increases.
The SSR aerial system can be composed of separate interrogation and control antennas Fig. Alternatively, these two elements may be combined in one physical structure, known as an integral aerial Fig.
The integral aerial is preferable, since it ensures coincidence of the interrogation and control patterns in the vertical plane.
However, such an aerial necessitates either a high speed switch on the aerial, or an additional channel in the rotating joint. A separate control aerial needs careful siting in order to prevent "shadowing" by the interrogator array and to ensure adequate matching of the vertical pattern.
However, when used in the on-mounted role 1 it obviates the need for an additional SSR channel in th e primary rotating joint.
The Video Link The choice of video link see Fig. If the radar site is remotely situated, a microwave radio link will be required.
Where the radar is relatively close to the operations building, a cable link with repeaters as necessary can be used.
A typical interlace facility is for triple-mode interlace with reversion to a priority mode and a multiple choice of interlace programmes.
The choice of video processing equipment depends on the complexity of the traffic problems and can range from a simple manual system, up to full automatic data processing.
If future use of computers is envisaged, it should be ascertained that the manual video processing equipment chosen is capable of being built-up to flt into the automatic system at a later stage.
System Monitor Secondary Surveillance Radar is a communication system and such a system can be proved by the transmission of a signal and reception of the correct reply.
This is done by means of a ground system monitor which monitors the major parameters of the transmissions and gives warning when the tolerances are exceeded.
This process is known as "Video Processing" and consists of: Rejection of asynchronous replies defruiting. Rejection of garbled information degarbling.
Marshalling of Modes and Codes decoding. Selection and presentation of the information actually required by the controller selection and readout.
Continuity of Service In order that continuity of service can be retained in the event of breakdown, or during maintenance periods, it is normally accepted that dual radar channels are required.
One channel is normally "Operational" and the other at "Standby". The amount of back-up equipment purchased is dictated by the intensity of the traffic, hours of operation and the financial backing available.
In the event of mechanical breakdown in the primary or secondary element, the other service can still be used independently.
Originally, the DFB-Pokal was a competition open to clubs from the top divisions of German football only.
This continued after the establishment of the Bundesliga in Semi-professional and amateur clubs could only enter the competition from onwards, when it was enlarged.
Up until , only the top two divisions of German football, the Bundesliga and 2. Bundesliga, were fully professional but from , with the establishment of the 3.
Liga, the third tier also became fully professional. From the start, the new match ups between Bundesliga and amateurs most usually third division clubs became a source of surprises.
Often titled the "mother of all cup sensations" German: FC Magdeburg became the first fourth division side to eliminate two Bundesliga clubs in one season.
Bundesliga, became cup winners after eliminating several Bundesliga teams in the process. Bundesliga team, but was promoted to the Bundesliga a week before they won the cup final.
Surprise results in the cup attract a strong media coverage in Germany and, at times, abroad. East Germany also had its own national cup: It was introduced in and awarded annually until after German reunification in led to the merger of the football leagues of the two Germanys.
English-language coverage is found on ESPN3. In the United Kingdom, selected ties are broadcast by BT Sport for the —15 until —18 season and Eleven Sports for the —19 until —21 season.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. List of DFB-Pokal winning managers. Retrieved 11 May Der Tagesspiegel in German.
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Die Kalklulation baut auf unser Berechnungsmethode der 1. Der FC Bayern besucht die Wiesn: Schade, dass der DFB keine exakten Zahlen dfb pokal preisgeld.
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